Are the Welsh the lost ten tribes of Israel?

by cymrusofren

(This article was originally published on the Daily Wales news site where all the archived articles including this one can be found here)

For over 35 years, historians Alan Wilson and Baram Blackett have been making the case for the real history of the Britons to be taught and studied, fighting against what they describe as a London establishment obsessed with stopping the true history of Britain from being divulged.

For those increasingly sceptical about how a version of the history of Wales, Britain, and much of the world has been pushed by London-centric establishment bodies and academia, it’s an area ripe for scrutiny.

Alan Wilson

Alan Wilson

Mr Wilson states that the known recorded history of Britain starts in and around 1500 -1350 BC, possibly earlier, with large scale migration into Europe and Britain from ancient Mesopotamia (corresponding to modern-day Iraq and Kuwait, north eastern Syria and parts of Turkey and Iran) and a later migration to Britain around 500 BC from Troy in what is now western Turkey, and then through the European continent.

Wilson and Blackett are also renowned for their huge body of research on Brenin Arthur /King Arthur and state that two Arthurs existed: King Arthur I who died in 400 AD and King Arthur II who died in 579AD.

The Ten Tribes of Israel (which later included two other assimilated tribes from Judea) were known to the Assyrian Emperors as the Khumry – a name too close to our modern day Cymry/Cymru to be a fleeting coincidence.

It’s also claimed that the Khumry tribes brought Arch y Cyfamod – the Ark of the Covenant – with them after King Jehoash removed it from Jerusalem circa 790 BC and that the Ark has been in Wales since 500 BC. Y Greal Sanctaidd/ Holy Grail is said to include the Ten Commandments inscribed on the two stone tablets placed in the Ark by Moses.

The original lost Ten Tribes, up to two million strong, never got lost; they cultivated the European continent giving birth to European civilisation, using Prydain/Britain as their base and going on to inhabit North America, Canada, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand in large numbers in recent centuries.

Vernacularly known in modern history texts as Celts, the language connecting all these people is described as being the language of the Khumric tribes – the indigenous British language of Cymraeg/Welsh.

Being the the original language of all of Britain, the Welsh language of the Khumry is part of a heritage that belongs to all modern day UK state citizens, be they from Wales, England, Cornwall or Scotland or Northern Ireland.

The Republic of Ireland and the crown dependencies of the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey also have an obvious interest in this shared heritage as do most Europeans and a massive amount of modern day North Americans, Canadians, Australians, Argentinians and New Zealanders.

A version of the Coelbren alphabet according to Llawdden 1400 -1480

A version of the Coelbren alphabet according to Llawdden 1400 -1480

Alan Wilson, together with Baram Blackett, state that the timeless Khumric Coelbren alphabet can be found and read on inscripted Coelbren stones scattered all along the ancient ancestral migration trails between Egypt, the Middle East, Europe and the USA.

The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II with what is believed to be a Phoenician Coelbren alphabet Photo: Eric Chan

The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II with what is believed to be a Phoenician Coelbren alphabet. Photo: Eric Chan

Wilson and Blackett’s work points out that the Coelbren stones follow the recorded path of the Khumric people that were led out of Egypt by Moses circa 1628 BC after the country was besieged by environmental and political disaster.

Most of the Khumry eventually reached Palestine during the age of the Hittite empire and were then eventually uprooted north to Armenia by the warmongering despotic Assyrians circa 740-702 BC.

Although hardly wilting flowers when it came to military confrontations – perhaps they were following prophecies or divination – the Khumry then eventually move west to the Dardanelles sea route in modern day north west Turkey by around 650 BC.

From 500 BC onwards, half the Khumry migrated to Italy (northern Italy especially) as well as Switzerland, Austria and the rest of the European continent.

This would certainly go a long way in explaining the often mentioned similarities between the Welsh and Italians, in language, passion and music.

The other half sailed to the nearby Island of Lemnos and, along with a number of the Khumric speaking Trojans, then set sail for Britain where they joined the existing Khumric tribes.

A major Coelbren inscribed stone was found on the island of Lemnos in 1876 which describes the fleets gathering there to sail the Khumry people to the great green island out in the western Ocean of the Atlantic – Britain.

The Lemnos Stele

The Lemnos Stele. Photo: Dan Difffendale

The Lemnos Stele side view

The Lemnos Stele side view. Photo: Dan Difffendale

The Greeks called the Khumry the “Cimmeroi” and according to Mr Wilson, the Coelbren Alphabet is the alphabet described by Julius Caesar around 55 BC, also adding that Ammianus Marcellinus stated that the Greeks got their alphabet from the Khumric Welsh.

The term Cimmerians/Cimmeroi, Gimir and Gimmiri are thought to be interchangeable names for the Khumry, as the terms Galli/ Gauls /Keltoi and Celt later became names for them across Europe depending on who was doing the describing.

The Etruscan Pyrgi tablets

The Etruscan Pyrgi tablets

Wilson states that there are said to be some 14,000 Etruscan inscriptions in Italy and a handful in ancient Rhaetia (Switzerland).

Wilson goes on to describe how a 30 foot long shroud was found wrapped around a mummy in Egypt and how this shroud is plastered with the Coelbren alphabet.

He also states that the two ‘unreadable’ Copper Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran are Coelbren and inscribed in the Welsh (Khumric) language, adding that all pre 330 BC Hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egypt can be read using Khumric Welsh dating back to 2150 BC.

Astonishingly, no one had attempted to read the ‘indecipherable’ Etruscan, Rhaetian, Aegean, and Asia Minor Pelasgian inscriptions using the ancient Khumric Welsh language before Alan Wilson and Baram Blackett did so in 1984.

It is not yet known precisely where the Khumry came from prior to being in Egypt in 2150 BC – probably mostly from Canaan and the northern middle east – but perhaps also from the European continent and Britain itself.

Many may simply have moved to Egypt to trade or to share the unique knowledge, skills and wisdom that the Druids, especially, were known to have possessed – with some suggesting that it was Druidic knowledge that helped build the Egyptian pyramids themselves.

The Druids seemed to have been a particular threat to the later Roman empire as they had astonishing knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, history, medicine, oratory, morality and religion, much of which is said to be found in the infamous Beibl y Coelbren/ Kolbrin bible.

This was the secular Khumric/Celtic equivalent of a bible which Edward I may have tried to destroy by burning Glastonbury Abbey in 1184 AD.

The Druids also later became followers and believers of Christ and his teachings and in the one God/creator, but were not necessarily Christian in the biblical-doctrine religious sense.

Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his historical account ‘The History of the Kings of Britain‘ states that, although there were already Khymric kinsmen in Britain, (with preceding legends such as Hu Gadarn), Brutus of Troy could have been the first known King of Britain from around the late 11th or early 12th century BC.

He may have founded and built Caer Troia/Troia Newydd (New Troy) in what was later called Llundain/London – a thousand and more years before the Romans are claimed to have built it.

In the highly respected ‘A History of Wales’, John Davies also alludes to Brutus of Troy coming to Britain in around 1170 BC – also adding that the Welsh could well have been in Britain much earlier as well.

In his jam packed historical book ‘The Welsh, the biography’ another Welsh historian, Terry Breverton, states:

“A Celtic common language was used across Europe from 4000 BCE (Before current era), based upon the need for communication owing to increased trade. Celtic people were established from Turkey in the East to Spain, Portugal, Britain, and Ireland in the West”

Breverton believes that the Khumric Britons have been in Britain since at least the period after the last Ice Age – around eleven thousand years ago – and probably in the period before the Ice Age as well.

The many Welsh place names found on so many old sites such as Bryn Celli Ddu in Anglesey from 4000 BC seems to attest to this hypothesis.

Genetics may not always be a fashionable or politically correct subject but it is often a very handy reference point.

R1b1b2 haplotype by country

R1b1b2 haplotype by country

Breverton reminds his readers that the genetic haplogroup R1b is the most frequent occurring Y chromosome in Western Europe (Wales, the Basque country, Ireland, Cornwall, Scotland, France, Galicia, Portugal, Spain, western and northern England, Catalonia and Italy especially) and especially the R1b1a2 (R-M269) branch for which he believes the point of origin to be western Asia/northern Middle East.

Distribution of Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)

Distribution of Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)

This would certainly tie in with the East-West hypothesis of the Lost Tribes of Israel.

Breverton also states that genetic studies have shown that Tutankhamen of Egypt, his father and grandfather also belonged to the haplogroup R1b1a2 (R-M269) branch that more than 50% of all men in Europe and 70% of British men belong to.

Wilson and Blackett observe however that ‘Celts’ and ‘Celtic’ are terms that came out of Oxford and London in 1814 as a ruse to obscure all original British histories so that the idea of a Hanoverian German monarchy and English Anglo-Saxon empire could be conjured up and marketed to the world. They state that, technically, ‘Khumry’, ‘Khumric Welsh’ or Khumric Britons are historically more accurate descriptions.

So could it be that these Khumric Welsh tribes were, in various numbers, to be found in Britain and Europe as well as Palestine/Canaan and Egypt, with numbers of them simply moving around at various times by land and sea to trade, share knowledge and avoid various environmental and political calamities?

Was this a mostly Khymric speaking commonwealth of nations – an early European and Phoenician/Middle Eastern Union where free trade and the exchange of ideas flourished?

Right now there seem to be as many questions as answers.

And what of the American claim by the Welsh?

Coelbren stones and other credible testimony and evidence have also been found in North America, giving strength to the hypothesis that the ancient Welsh were in America long before Columbus.

The popular belief is that Madog ab Owain Gwynedd sailed to North America in 1170 AD. Wilson and Blackett, using DNA profiling and radiocarbon dating on artifacts and human remains found in the US Midwest and Wales, claim that it was a Madog Morfran ap Meurig that first sailed to the continent, even earlier, circa 562-575 AD.

This was the period soon after or during a massive comet that allegedly destroyed much of Britain, starting the period known as the Dark Ages.

Wilson states that an Admiral Gwenon was then sent out to check on Madog’s discoveries before Brenin Arthur ap Meurig (King Arthur II) led the third major fleet migration in 574.

Although it isn’t an idea put forward by Wilson and Blackett, perhaps it isn’t inconceivable that, as with the two claimed Arthurs, there may well have been two Madogs who sailed to North America at different times as well.

King Arthur’s fleet to North America has been suggested to be in the hundreds in ships and in the tens of thousands in men.

According to Wilson, Welsh shipbuilders were the best in the business and many ancient Khumric kings fought wars of movement that relied upon their being able to move large numbers of troops and vast quantities of supplies from place to place – a fact he says is often overlooked by many establishment figures who are quite happy for other tribal groups, the Angles, the Saxons, the Vikings and others to have sailed long distances in ships of great speed and manoeuvrability.

Madog and King Arthur’s vast armies are believed to have travelled up the intricate river systems of North America, raising structures and encountering friendly and unfriendly tribes of native Americans before finally settling down mostly around the Midwest or the the Great Plains.

There are some claims that they possibly worked with and influenced South American civilisations as well – not so much of a stretch of the imagination if considering the possible influence of the Druids on Egyptian civilisation and Pyramid building.

People would do well to avoid negative knee jerk reactions and keep an open mind in this area – history teaches us that truth is most often far stranger than fiction.

Wilson and Blackett have spent much time in the USA with American historians, collecting considerable evidence and visiting sites of interest.

Evidence of Welsh speaking native Americans is numerous and far more common than what we have perhaps been led to believe, with books and historical records suggesting that this hypothesis cannot now be disregarded.

King Arthur II, claims Wilson, was killed in a battle with Native American tribes in what is today known as Kentucky and his body sent home to Britain.

In 1824, Thomas S Hinde, of the prominent Hinde family, wrote to John S. Williams, editor of The American Pioneer, regarding the Madog tradition. In the letter (pages 373-376) Hinde claimed to have gathered testimony from numerous sources that stated that in 1799, six soldiers had been dug up near Jeffersonville, Indiana, on the Ohio river with breastplates that contained Welsh coat-of-arms. He also gives several references to Welsh and Welsh-speaking Indians. The present-day location of the breast plates are unknown.

Reuben T. Durrett’s book ‘Traditions of the Earliest Visits of Foreigners to North America’ published in 1908 has an incredible amount of references to the Welsh Indians.

As does ‘The Rev Morgan Jones and the Welsh Indians of Virginia‘ published in 1898, and ‘The biography of Francis Lewis and Rev Morgan Jones’ written by Lewis’ granddaughter Julia Delafield and published in 1877.

Y Brenin Arthur

Y Brenin Arthur

Numerous other credible sources can be found from across much of North America in support of the Welsh American heritage.

Although no comprehensive and thorough pan-Atlantic genetic research seems to have yet been done in this area, it is also interesting to note that many native American tribes in the Midwest and North East of the USA,and Canada especially, have a disproportionately high percentage of the R1b haplogroup (Y-DNA).

As mentioned, the R1b haplogroup Y-DNA (R-M269) is most commonly found in Western Britain and Western Europe, with the highest concentration to be found specifically in Wales at 92.3% as a percentage of total population.

John Evans of Waunfawr is an oft-cited example of an explorer who could not find Welsh speakers in the Mandan tribe. But the Mandan was only one tribe and Evans only explored a small area, mainly following the upper Missouri river.

He did not set out to find all the areas with well documented claims of Welsh speaking locals – in Virginia, north Carolina, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Florida to name but a few.

Furthermore, Evans was in the pay of the Spanish crown. If he would have reported evidence of Welsh speaking Indians it would give the Khumric Welsh (and British state at that time and as Welsh descendants Elizabeth the 1st and John Dee had previously claimed) a rightful claim on North America, making Christopher Columbus and the Spanish government’s claim utterly valueless, leaving Evans out of a job and probably in danger of his life.

Maybe he simply didn’t find any evidence on his particular travels and dared not try again in case he found what he may have suspected was true.

One thing is fairly sure – the Christopher Columbus discovery of America is now a defunct historical celebration due to numerous other earlier claims, not least the Madog claim – a claim that is now getting harder to ignore considering the various evidence and numerous Madog/Madoc place names scattered across North America.

Although there can be little doubt that they later became more problematic, the destructive comet and resulting Dark Ages angle suggests that the swift, genocidal Anglo-Saxon conquest of large areas of Britain theory perhaps needs to be re-evaluated as well.

Wilson states that most of Britain was devastated when debris from this comet caused a scatter of vast explosions and devastations equivalent to a rain of perhaps a hundred atomic bombs.

The illiterate German peasants, guided by the Roman church eager for them to colonise were thus able to move into depopulated areas, slowly recovering empty lands in east Britain especially, he claims.

Wilson and Blackett claim that Coelbren alphabet inscriptions also exist on many ancient stones in Britain, notably the stone of King Gorddwfyn. Dafydd ap Gwilym (died 1367 AD) mentions it, as do six other well known bards between AD 1420 to 1480.

The theory that Iolo Morgannwg (born 1747) randomly came up with the Coelbren in some opium den in Hampstead, unless he had a Dr Who Tardis time machine, therefore makes little sense and was presumably an early propaganda piece by an establishment desperate to try and manipulate the true history of Wales and Britain.

Although no historian can be right all of the time, Wilson and Blackett are unequivocal that their body of research is a provable, authentic and accurate ancient national British history.

Thousands of members of the public in Wales, England, Scotland and across the globe are fully aware of the conspiracy to cover up the truth, perpetuated by the BBC and others in academia and beyond.

Real Welsh British history can now thankfully be found being increasingly discussed, researched and debated online.

Contrary to what many (mostly elite English establishment historians) have tried to tell us, the Britons were a highly advanced, culturally developed, literate, metal-working civilization who had followed Christ and his teachings since 35-37 AD – not the illiterate barbarians that the establishment academics would have us believe.

Any notion of a shared or inclusive Brythonic heritage were forgotten however when the London establishment and Crown imported the German Hanoverian family of the elector of Hanover as their puppet Kings and Queens claims Wilson:

“From this point onwards everything historical had to be politically and religiously redesigned into a suitably acceptable form to promote the new Germanism in England in particular, and Britain as a whole.

“From this time onwards the centuries of assaults upon all ancient British history, heritage and culture, accelerated and increased. Everything British had to go.

“The numerous, strong, culturally advanced British nations had to be transformed into primitive tribes of uneducated barely civilized peasant barbarians and the German origins of the Anglo Saxons needed to be promoted and extolled.

“Periodic control of parts of Britain by the Romans were expanded to an imaginary period of 400 years of total domination and described as ‘Roman Britain’ with all the British dynasties suddenly eliminated.”

Wilson and Blackett are certain that, despite the sudden devastating effects of the crashed comet, there were no dark ages in Britain in the political way we have been led to believe. The major Khumric British Kings continued from at least 500 BC to1300 AD and the Khumric British line of kings persisted right through the greatly exaggerated alleged ‘Roman period’.

Commenting on the Dark ages narrative, Wilson writes:

“The near 80 successive Khumric Kings, who ruled from circa 500 BC to AD 1300, included King Arthur I (the first Arthur) son of Mascen Wledig of circa AD 345 -400, who did defeat the Romans as Soissons – Sassy and kill the Roman Emperor Gratian as Lyons-Lugdumum in 383 AD. The sixth generations later King Arthur II (the second Arthur) son of King Meurig, who was born in AD 503, died in 579

“What the Academics in London, Oxford, Cambridge, and elsewhere cannot get into their heads is the provable fact that the British line of Kings persisted right through the greatly exaggerated alleged ‘Roman period’ and that there never was any Roman Britain of the order they imagine, and imagine is the correct word.”

Wilson adds:

“Because it was not possible to murder the entire ancient British nation, the strategy has been to destroy, to eradicate, and to obliterate the vast and entire corpus of all ancient British history. At this present time this deliberate and evil campaign has been largely successful, and the demolition of the truth is gathering pace.

“These organizations have succeeded in transforming the correct image of our ancient British ancestors from being a very well recorded highly civilized, literate, advanced and developed culture that was comparable to anything that Greece, Rome, or Judea, had to offer, into a gross caricature of misrepresentation as a disparate spread of loose primitive near savage tribal peoples.

“The misrepresentation of our ancient British Ancestors is so grotesque as to be almost beyond imagination”

For over 30 years Wilson and Blackett say that they have made every effort and attempt to make the Welsh authorities aware they are sitting on a tourist industry that could offer thousands of jobs where work is much needed, but to no avail.

It is obvious they say, that the real history of Britain and the Britons is of huge potential embarrassment to the London regime, to the Church of England and to the Vatican in Rome.

The media, press and official establishment have tried to destroy them and their characters because they have “dared to question the phoney, fabricated, and forged and quite hilariously stupid set of yarns that have been invented since AD 1714 to masquerade as ancient British history, foisted by the London establishment as servants to the Crown corporation”

But where does all this talk of the lost tribes of Israel leave the people that currently call themselves Jewish? A report published in the Times of Israel in March 2014 declared that modern day Jews are in fact mostly Khazars who converted to the religion of Judaism in the period between the seventh and ninth century and ruled over Khazaria – a vast part of what became southern Russia and Ukraine, before moving in their droves to what we know today as modern Israel and becoming the ancestors of what are often now known as the Ashkenazi Jews.

The report by Israeli researcher Eran Elhaik states that Khazar ancestry is the single largest element in the Ashkenazi Jewish gene pool.

A team of esteemed scholars from leading research institutions and museums also issued a report to the Israeli government acknowledging that European Jews are in fact Khazars – research which the Israeli government have accepted prompting many Israelis to suggest creating a new second homeland in the present day Ukraine which would have been part of the original Khazaria empire.

According to Alan Wilson, this figure of present day Ashkenazi Jews in Israel not being ethnically or originally Jewish/Israelite is put at around 95% of the population, while up to 5% of the present day population are thought to be remnants of the original ethnic Israelites.

This would certainly make sense if we consider that most of the original tribes of Israel would have left this area of the middle east many centuries before if following the Lost Ten Tribes hypothesis.

The ‘anti Semitic’ label often given to anyone who merely discusses or debates the situation and history of Israel/Palestine has also become rather defunct considering that the Semitic label refers to people who are from and speak a family of languages native to the Middle East and Western Asia which includes ancient Phoenician as well as the later Hebrew and Arabic languages .

British Israelite movements seen in the last few centuries seem to continue to attempt to sell an Anglo-Israeli version of history that conflates ‘British’ with ‘English’, failing to grasp that British in its true sense means Khumric/Welsh Britons with a shared common language of Cymraeg/Welsh – a language steeped in the history of Britain, Europe and it seems, Egypt, Palestine and the Middle East. Professor John Morris Jones wrote a thesis in 1898 that demonstrated how the complex Khumric syntax and that of ancient Egypt were identical, with the same seven vowels – AEIOUWY – used in ancient Egypt and Cymraeg.

Wilson asks:

“So why has this centuries long Anti-British conspiracy aimed at the total destruction of the history, the heritage, and the culture of the native British people which is the inalienable property of all of us who are British by descent and/or birth, been carried on?

“What are the Church of Rome and the London Establishment of its Monarchy and Church so afraid of that they determinedly conspire to destroy the rightful inheritance of the British Nation?”

He and other historians such as Michael A Clark believe that one of the main reasons for the conspiracy is that, following the collapse of a religious-political movement in Jerusalem in AD 35, the group known as The Holy Family, led by a certain Joseph of Arimeathea (later known as St Ilid), packed up, left Jerusalem and sailed to Britain knowing that their ancient kinsmen, the Khumry, who would have been in Britain for at least 500 years prior, would give them refuge and protect them.

A young man going by the name of Iesu Grist/Jesus Christ is also claimed to have visited Britain in his youth, and is also buried in Britain according to Wilson.

The disproportionate number of place names in Wales that have Israelite origins also tends to lend a certain weight to the history of the Khumry and the twelve lost tribes hypothesis in a biblical/Israelite context: Bethesda, Hebron, Hermon, Bethel etc.
According to Wilson:

“The First Christian Church was established in Khumric Wales in AD 35 -‘the last year of Tiberius and this was attested to by Cardinal Baronius, the learned Vatican Librarian, as a direct result of his researches around 1535. This original Apostolic Christianity was taken to Rome from Britain in AD 51 when the Apostolic Christian family of King Caradog travelled to the Italian capital where Caradog’s son Linus became the first bishop of Rome.

“Caradog’s daughter, Princess Eurgain married Rufus Pudens who appears in Biblical records – he also left a memorial stone at the Palace of the traitor King Cogidubnus. The evidence is considerable.”

Wilson comments that this very definitely contradicts the claims of the Church of Rome that Peter and Paul founded the Western Church in Rome, both of whom incidentally arrived in Rome at separate times much later.

So there is an immediate problem with Roman Catholicism and the original Apostolic Christian Church according Wilson and Blackett’s work. These major problems increase when the detail of the original British Apostolic Christianity stemming directly from the Holy Family, its founder and his followers in Britain, is compared with that of Rome.

In other words, The Khumric Welsh took Christianity to Rome, not the other way round.

If this is correct it turns all known European history on its head, spins it sideways and kicks it into oblivion. No wonder the London establishment and media act so peculiarly when it comes to Wales and the Welsh language, bizarrely undermining a crucial part of their own Brythonic heritage in the process.

If Christianity was taken to Rome from Wales by the Khumric Welsh, this, as mentioned, virtually demolishes the pretensions of the Church of Rome.

This version of British history – and the suggested ancient lineage of the Welsh Khumry being the original lost tribes of Israel – is obviously damaging to the pretensions of the puppet English Monarchy and is further potentially problematic to aspects of modern Israeli political power ambitions.

Maybe affectionate descriptions of the Welsh language being the ‘language of heaven’ are also a further vexation to those wishing to claim and exercise absolute religious and monarchical authority.

As Wilson states:

“It is time to tell the truth. The whole truth, and nothing but the truth. We are dealing with the biggest pack of political and religious lies in the history of the world.”

Meanwhile the Cymric people have somehow managed to retain their timeless language, values and sense of place and purpose whilst still reaching out and connecting themselves to the whole world.

Perhaps the people of Wales, past and present, have always known that they have been fighting dark political and spiritual powers.

So could the Welsh Britons be the Khumric lost Ten Tribes of Israel?

Yes they could is the simple answer. More debate and discussion of the various evidence and possibilities is certainly needed.

But generations of a collective national memory still exist and, when added to the increasing amount of credible evidence, the suspicion must be that this is a distinct if not very likely possibility. History, as always, is in the making.

Wilson and Blackett have written more than 11 books on British Welsh history which can be brought from most online platforms. There are also countless videos and DVDs of their work available online, most of them free to watch. Or for further information and prices contact one of their main retailers here or contact: richard@richplanet.net